Money Supply
Monetary based model of money
supply through the principle of money multiplier (m).
Money
multiplier (m) is the ratio of the aggregate stock of money available in the
economy (M) to the size of high powered money (H).
It shows that the aggregate stock of money supply
available in the economy is the product of the value of money multiplier times
the size of high powered money.
There are many money multiplier models developed by
different economists at different time period like:

General model
(IMF model)

Cagan model

Friedman model

Luckett model

Pesek and saving
model

Jerry &
Jordan model and so on…
Out of them Jerry & Jordan model is taken as the
best model of money multiplier that has 7 equations in hand as given as:
M = C + DD + OD  equation (1)
H = C + R + OD  equation
(2)
R = r + D  equation
(3)
D = DD + TD  equation
(4)
K = C/DD or C = K.DD  equation (5)
t = TD/DD or TD = t.DD  equation (6)
d = OD/DD or OD = d.DD  equation (7)
Where,
M = aggregate money supply in economy
C = currency held by people in their hands/pockets
DD = demand deposits of public with BFIs (Banking
and Financial Institutions)
OD = other deposits of public with central bank
(government, government enterprises, foreign offices)
H = high powered money
R = total cash reserves of BFIs
r = cash reserve ratio in weightage average
D = total deposits of public with BFIs
TD = time deposits of public with BFIs
K = currency ratio
t = time deposit ratio
d = other deposit ratio
Now,
Substituting the equation (6) into equation (4) we
get,
D = DD + t.DD
Or, D = DD (1 + t)  equation
(8)
Substituting the equation (8) into equation (9) we
get,
R = r.DD (1 + t)  equation
(9)
Substituting the equation (5), (7) and (9) into
equation (2) we get,
H = K.DD + r.DD (1 + t) + d.DD
Or, H = DD {K + r (1 + t) +d}
Therefore, DD = H/ {K + r (1 + t) +d} 
equation (10)
Substituting the equation (5) and (7) into (1) we
get,
M = K.DD + DD + d.DD
Or, M = DD {K + 1 + d} 
equation (11)
At last, substituting the equation (10) into
equation (11) we get,
Where,
which is known as the money multiplier.
Further, it shows that M is the positive function of both the
value of m and H. hence, as the value of m or H increases, the value of M also
increases and vice versa. Therefore the seen or visible variables in money
multiplier models like K, d, r, t and H are known as the proximate determinants of money supply.
Here, the value of m is negatively affected by the value of K,
t, d and r. Besides, the value of H, r, K, t and d are affected by many unseen
factors which are known as ultimate determinants
of money supply like:

H is affected by
o NFAR (Net foreign asset reserve of the central bank)
o NCG
o CGEs
o BFIs
o CPS especially the employees of central bank
o NML (Nonmonetary liability)
o OPAs used by the central bank

r is affected by
o Availability of liquidity in financial market
o Condition of money and capital markets
o Effectiveness of monetary policy

K, t and d are
affected by
o Level of income and frequency of income received by
people
o Consumption and saving behaviors of people
o Banking behavior of people
o Development of banking system and expansion of banks
o Inflation rate
o Interest rate on deposits at banks

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